Environmental and Social Impact Assessments (ESIA)

Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) is a process of identifying, predicting, and evaluating the likely environmental, socio-economic, and cultural impacts due to the implementation of a project, and to propose mitigation actions together with management and monitoring measures; not only to reduce negative impacts but also provide positive contributions to the natural environment and well-being of the community.

The general format of the ESIA report is as follows.

Chapter 1   :    Introduction to the project

Chapter 2   :    Description of the project

Chapter 3   :    Analysis of alternatives

Chapter 4   :    Description of the existing environment (physical, biological, socio-economic, and cultural)

Chapter 5   :    Assessment of anticipated impacts (environmental, socio-economic, and cultural) due to the implementation of the project

Chapter 6   :    Proposed mitigatory measures

Chapter 7   :    Contingency management plan

Chapter 8   :    Environmental and social management plan and monitoring plan

Chapter 9   :    Extended cost-benefit analysis

Chapter 10 :    Conclusions and recommendations

The Central Environmental Authority (CEA), Sri Lanka, has established a legal framework for the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process in Sri Lanka has been laid down in the National Environmental Act (NEA) in 1980 and its subsequent amendments. Hence, EIA has become a mandatory requirement for the establishment of projects in Sri Lanka under the National Environmental Act.

Some of our main focuses include:

  • Environmental and Social Impact Assessments
  • Environmental and Social Appraisals
  • Environmental and Social Screenings
  • Environmental Monitoring


  • Perera, K. T. N., Wijayaratna, T. M. N., Jayatillake, H. M., Priyadarshana, T., & Manatunge, J. M. A. (2020). Implications of storage state behaviour of village tanks in adaptation to climate change, Sri Lanka. Journal of Water and Climate Change.
  • Perera, K. T. N., Wijayaratna, T. M. N., Jayatillake, H. M., Manatunge, J. M. A., & Priyadarshana, T. (2020). Hydrological principle behind the development of series of bunds in ancient tank cascades in small catchments, Sri Lanka. Water Practice and Technology15(4), 1174-1189.
  • Manatunge, J., Yamazawa, S., & Samanpriya, M. M. M. (2019). The Contribution of Women in Rebuilding Livelihoods in the Long-Term After Involuntary Resettlement: A Case Study of Resettlers of Kotmale Dam, Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian Development5(1), 71-93.
  • Bruch, C., Karimi, S., Manatunge, J., & Nakayama, M. (2017). Barriers to long-term return after the Great East Japan earthquake: Lessons from Hirono Town. Journal of Asian Development3(1), 23-39.
  • Manatunge, J. M. A., & Abeysinghe, U. (2017). Factors affecting the satisfaction of post-disaster resettlers in the long term: A case study on the resettlement sites of tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka. Journal of Asian Development3(1), 94-124.
  • Manatunge, J. (2016). The Long-term Impacts of Land-for-Land Compensation: A Case Study from the Victoria Dam in Sri Lanka. Asian Journal of Environment and Disaster Management, 7(4), 393-412.
  • Sunardi, Gunawan, B., Manatunge, J., & Pratiwi, F. D. (2013). Livelihood status of resettlers affected by the Saguling Dam project, 25 years after inundation. International Journal of Water Resources Development29(1), 25-34.
  • Manatunge, J., & Takesada, N. (2013). Long-term perceptions of project-affected persons: a case study of the Kotmale Dam in Sri Lanka. International Journal of Water Resources Development29(1), 87-100.
  • Manatunge, J., Takesada, N., Miyata, S., & Herath, L. (2009). Livelihood rebuilding of dam-affected communities: Case studies from Sri Lanka and Indonesia. International Journal of Water Resources Development25(3), 479-489.
  • Takesada, N., Manatunge, J., & Herath, I. L. (2008). Resettler choices and long‐term consequences of involuntary resettlement caused by construction of Kotmale Dam in Sri Lanka. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research & Management13(3), 245-254.
  • Manatunge, J., Nakayama, M., & Priyadarshana, T. (2008). Environmental and social impacts of reservoirs: issues and mitigation. Oceans and aquatic ecosystems1, 212-255.
  • Miyata, S., & Manatunge, J. (2004). Knowledge sharing and other decision factors influencing adoption of aquaculture in Indonesia. International Journal of Water Resources Development20(4), 523-536.